PREFACE

FROM THE PREFACE . . . On reaching the age of seventy, I was encouraged to commit to paper ideas and reflections I had shared with friends and colleagues over…

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SOVEREIGNTY

FROM THE FIRST CHAPTER: SOVEREIGNTY What has been defined above as the ‘onto­logical triad’ depends on the maintenance within a civilisation of balance in the essential relationship between three levels…

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CIVILISATION

FROM THE SECOND CHAPTER: CIVILISATION For a thousand years, before the rise of the European empires, the two civilisations that dominated the Afro-Eurasian world were those of China and Islam.…

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KNOWLEDGE

FROM THE THIRD CHAPTER: KNOWLEDGE Within a hundred years of the establishment of the community in Medina, the Muslims had control of an empire that stretched from Spain to India…

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COMMERCE

FROM THE FOURTH CHAPTER: COMMERCE . . . The pious merchant became the cornerstone of Islamic civilisation. The markets were adjacent to the mosques, and whereas today, when walking through…

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